An innate immunity receptor agonist
WHAT IS IMMUNOMODULATOR?
It is a medicine (not to be confused with dietary supplement) improving the effectiveness of immunodefences. It could have biologic, plant-based or synthetic origins. Its administration in treatment of a number of diseases may significantly accelerate recovery and minimize adverse effects. It can be of two types: immunomodulating and immunosuppressive. In this case, Licopid® 1 mg is an immunomodulator, which “helps” the immune system to recover and be ready to address the infection.
WHAT IS GMDP?
Each microbial cell “wears” external safety coating called “cell wall”, significant part of which is formed by a peptidoglycan. The latter consists of recurrent fragments forming a frame. From the one side, peptidoglycan, its structural components, protect bacterial cell, whereas, from the other side, they “yield up” its affiliation with microbial world.
Effective substance of Licopid is GMDP (glucosaminylmuramyldipeptide), being the fully synthetic analogue of recurrent fragment of peptidoglycan of Gram+ and Gram- bacteria.
In the body, GMDP is naturally formed under the effect of various hydrolytic enzymes breaking down the bacterial cell wall.
CLASSIFICATION OF MICROBIAL IMMUNOMODULATORS
Classification of microbial immunomodulators under Kozlov I.G. (Head of Laboratory of Experimental Immunology and Immunopharmacology of the Federal Scientific and Clinical Center for Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Immunology, Vice President of the Russian Scientific Society of Immunologists) 2005.
0 generation — Living bacteria
- I generation — Lysates of microorganisms
II generation — Partially refined components
- Nucleic acids
III generation — Minimal biologically active fragments
- Glucosaminylmuramyldipeptide (GMDP) — (Licopid)
- CpG oligonucleotides
IS LICOPID A MEDICINE?
Yes, it is. Licopid® is a medicine registered as such by the Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation since 1995 (ls-001438-230911).
WHY LICOPID IS CALLED THE NATURAL IMMUNOREGULATOR?
GMDP is not alien molecules; our body meets them daily fighting off the attacks of “pathogenic” microbes by processing of “worn-out” useful bacteria bearing GMDP in their cell walls, i.e. potentially different analogues could become “molecule” of the drug – activator of innate immunity, upon clinical proof of its safety.
HOW LICOPID EFFECTS HUMAN BODY?
Licopid® increases functional activity (bactericide, cytotoxic) of “main” cells of innate immune system, professional “killers” of everything alien — phagocytes. Licopid strengthens their presentation by antigens, proliferation of Т- and В-lymphocytes, increases synthesis of specific antibodies, and promotes normalization of Th1/Th2-lymphocytes towards Th1 predominance. Licopid® (GMDP) stimulates leucopoiesis and recovery of granulocyte count by activation of production of colony-stimulating factors (CSF).
There are also other useful properties of GMDP evolved from experimental studies — antitumor and antimethastatic effects, adjuvant properties (higher production of antibodies at immunization, which is especially important at introduction of killed or “weakened” antigens).
WHAT ARE LICOPID EFFECTS?
Muramylpeptides are natural activators of innate immune system through innate immunity receptor NOD-2.
IS IT HARMFUL TO USE DRUGS AFFECTING THE IMMUNE SYSTEM?
Licopid® 1 mg is a medicine and like other medicines has certain indications for use. If Licopid® is administered as indicated and in indicated dosages, it would not hurt but may help coping with situation above all.
HOW LICOPID WORKS?
The effective agent of Licopid is a small molecule forming a part of a cell wall of all useful bifido- and lactic bacteria. It means that such substance is “known” to our body, and our body meets it daily. Licopid operates through receptor (relevant protein generally presented in different body cells) and normalizes operation of the first line of defense of our body, thereby helping to manage with recurrent respiratory and skin infections, frequent herpes recurrences.
HOW LICOPID AFFECTS THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, IS IT SAFE?
It is safe since the effect of this drug is as close as possible to the natural immunoregulation process essentially evolved in all living organisms.
HOW OFTEN SHOULD LICOPID BE ADMINISTERED?
It should be administered upon the emergence of indications for use indicated in the drug instruction. Moreover, Licopid 1 mg could be used for prevention and reduction of seasonal acute respiratory infections morbidity and frequency of exacerbations of recurrent diseases, upper and lower respiratory diseases, especially, during autumn-winter period.
IS IT TRUE THAT LICOPID 1MG COULD ALSO BE USED BY ADULTS?
Yes, it is. Licopid 1 mg is indicated for treatment in different daily and course dosages in children over 3 years old and adults.
WHAT IS PERORAL AND SUBLINGUAL USE?
Peroral administration is drug intake by swallowing it with water. Sublingual administration is dissolving a drug sublingually or in oral cavity without swallowing.
IN WHAT CASES SHOULD LICOPID BE TAKEN SUBLIGUALLY?
In terms of Licopod 1 mg, sublingual use is indicated in most cases. More detailed information could be found in instruction on medical use of Licopid 1 mg in section “Nosology and method of administration” (“Nosology and administration”).
WHETHER ANY PRECLINICAL AND CLINICAL STUDIES ON LICOPID 1 MG HAVE BEEN CARRIE...
Preclinical and clinical studies have been carried out in Great Britain, Latvia, Australia, and Russia. Clinical studies have been carried out with patient randomization and placebo-control.
WHETHER LICOPID 1MG COULD BE USED IN COMBINATION WITH OTHER MEDICINES?
Licopid could be used with a lot of medicines. However, Licopid must not be combined with glucocorticoids and must be taken not earlier than 1.5-2 hours after administration of adsorbents (activated carbon, and etc.).
HOW DOES LICOPID WORK?
Licopid® (GMDP) is one of immunomodulators with known and predictable effect, providing it a clear advantage.
Pharmacologic activity of drug is achieved by binding of its effective agent – GMDP with intracellular receptor of innate immunity NOD2 (Girardin S.E., 2003; Meshcheryakova E., 2007). GMDP binding with the receptor results in a series of intracellular events ending by activation of nuclear factor (NF) and production of a series of key cytokines— IL-1, IL-6, IL-12, TNF-α, interferon-gamma, and colony-stimulating factors (CSF).
By influence on key molecular target (receptor) in immune system, GMDP as part of Licopid imitates the natural discovery process of peptidoglycan fragments in bacteria.
Discovery of innate immunity receptors and description of the methods operation of innate immunity was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine in 2011. Further information on main operating principles of innate immunity in view of modern representations could be found in article “Nobel Prize or Ode to Innate Immunity”.
HOW LICOPID IS DISTINGUISHED FROM OTHER DIFFERENT IMMUNOMODULATORS?
Firstly, Licopid® 1 mg is a broad spectrum immunomodulator; it is effective against agents of bacterial, fungal, and viral origins. Secondly, it has known mechanism of action at molecular level.
HOW FAST THIS DRUG STARTS WORKING?
After taking of the first tablet.
Signaling molecule for innate immunity.
Immunotherapy for the prevention and treatment of secondary immunodeficiency in children and adult.